* An informal ‘trialogue’ involving the EU, Turkey and Russia should be established, allowing cooperation over security to build from the ground up.
* In order to strengthen Turkey’s European identity, Ankara should be given a top-table seat at the trialogue, in parallel with enhanced EU accession negotiations. New chapters should be opened on CSDP and energy.
* The EU should be represented by the foreign affairs high representative, Catherine Ashton, institutionalising the EU as a security actor.
* A European security identity should be fostered by encouraging the involvement of Russia in projects like missile defence that focus on external threats to Europe.
* Russian resolve should be tested by a commitment to dealing with frozen conflicts and instability in the wider European area.